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A collection of Australian, Tropical and common Europeans and American commercial timbers.

MOR = Modulus of Rupture

MOE = Modulus of Elasticity

Comp = Compressive Strength

Tough = Toughness

Hard = Hardness

 

Name Source Density MOR MOE Comp Tough Hard
 (Common name) (Specimen origin) kg/m3 MPa GPa MPa J kN
Apple, smooth-barked NSW Aus 990 132 16 62 24 10
Ash, alpine Tas., Vic., NSW 620 110 15 60 18 4.9
Ash, European Great Britain 700 116 12 53  - 6.1
Ash, mountain Tas., Vic. 680 110 16 63 20 4.9
Balsa Ecuador 170 19 3.8 12  - 0.4
Baltic, red Europe 480 83 10 45  - 2.6
Basswood PNG 390 61 9.6 36 7.6 1.7
Bean, black NSW Aus 770 115 15 65 11 7.5
Beech, European Italy 675 108 10 52  - 5.7
Beech, New Guinea PNG 830 128 16 69 18 6.2
Beech, white PNG 470 61 8.8 36 6.3 2.0
Belah NSW Aus 1150 121 16 48 13 20
Belian Sabah 1000 178 18 94  - 13
Birch, white NSW Aus 640 95 14 53 9.5 4.5
Blackbutt NSW Aus 930 140 14 68 19 9.5
Blackwood Tasmania 640 99 13 48 13 5.9
Bloodwood, brown NSW Aus 1050 89 13 65 6.9 13
Bonewood NSW Aus 860 164 23 67 16 10
Box, grey NSW, Vic 1120 163 20 80 18 15
Box, kanuka NSW Aus 840 145 19 64 20 8.0
Box, steel NSW Aus 1130 136 19 82  - 17
Brigalow NSW Aus 900 127 18 58 16 10
Brownbarrel Vic, NSW 750 107 14 65 13 6.4
Calophyllum PNG 590 102 14 58 12 4.6
Camphorwood NSW Aus 560 93 14 43 13 4.1
Candlebark Vic 740 95 13 55 11 5.9
Cedar, Alaska North America 500 78 11 45  - 2.6
Cedar, pencil, Virginian USA 520 61 6.1 42  - 4.0
Cedar, red, western Canada 380 54 8.3 34  - 1.5
Cedar, South American Nicaragua 360 54 7.0 31  - 2.2
Cheesewood, white PNG 385 60 9.1 29 4.2 1.7
Coachwood NSW Aus 620 100 14 48 ' 12 4.6
Cottonwood, eastern USA 400 55 8.6 28  - 1.9
Doughwood NSW Aus 530 75 11 38 5.8 3.6
Ebony Nigeria 1010 189 18 92  - 14
Ebony West Africa 820 117 11 59  - 9.5
Erima PNG 370 53 8.2 36 4.8 1.6
Erima Sabah 350 52 6.3 33  - 1.7
Fir, alpine USA 360 59 8.9 34  - 1.6
Fir, amabilis Canada 440 69 11 41  - 2.0
Fir, balsam USA 400 52 8.5 31  - 1.8
Fir, Douglas NSW Aus 510 90 13 55  - 3.1
Fir, Douglas Canada 540 89 13 50  - 3.0
Fir, Douglas Canada (coast type) 560 97 13 55  - 3.2
Fir, Douglas Great Britain 500 91 11 48  - 3.4
Fir, Douglas New Zealand 480 98 13 54  - 3.3
Fir, Douglas USA (coast type) 540 84 13 51  - 3.2
Fir, grand USA 420 61 11 37  - 2.2
Fir, noble USA 430 74 12 42  - 1.8
Fir, red, Californian USA 430 72 10 38  - 2.2
Giam PNG 1000 169 24 94 22  10
Gidgee Qld Aus 1250 159 18 101 16 19
Greenheart Guyana 970 180 21 90  - 11
Guarea  West Africa 550 103 9.4 53  - 4.0
Gum, blue, southern Vic 900 146 20 83 23  12
Gum, blue, Sydney NSW Aus 850 140 18 68 18  9.0
Gum, grey NSW Aus 1080 140 18 72 21 14
Gum, grey, mountain Vic, NSW 880 142 18 77 20 10
Gum, Maiden's Vic, NSW 950 147 19 84 22 11
Gum, mountain Vic, NSW 700 117 13 50 8.2 5.7
Gum, red, forest Qld, NSW, Vic. 1050 120 14 70 16 12
Gum, rose NSW, Qld Aus 620 122 17 66 16 7.5
Gum, round-leaved NSW Aus 960 140 23 54 11 12
Gum, spotted NSW Aus 950 150 23 75 24 11
Hemlock, western Canada 510 88 12  52 - 3.0
Hemlock, western Great Britain 430 76 8.0  41 - 2.6
Hickory, pecan USA 690 122 14  58 - 9.5
Hickory, true USA 800 139 15  64  -  -
Iroko West Africa 660 90 9.4  55  - 5.6
Ironbark, grey NSW Aus 1120 181 24 95 27 14
Ironbark, red NSW, Vic 1130 135 17 75 14 13
Ironbark, red, broad-lf NSW Aus 1140 167 24 79 18 14
Ironwood NSW Aus 1020 185 20 84 24 9.7
Ivorywood NSW Aus 860 148 20 66 19 10
Jarrah Western Australia 820 112 13 61 10 8.5
Jelutong South-east Asia 400 50 8.1 27  - 1.7
Kamarere PNG 690 105 14 70 19 5.3
Kapur Sabah 750 119 14 66  - 5.4
Karri Western Australia 900 132 19 72 24 9.0
Kauri, East Indian PNG 490 67 9.3 43 4.3 2.7
Kauri, New Zealand New Zealand 560 90 13 39 11 3.3
Kauri, North Qld Aus Qld Aus 480 64 7.8 38 2.3 2.3
Keruing Philippines 590 112 16 59  - 5.3
Keruing Sabah 770 137 14 72  - 5.7
Keruing Sabah 640 110 14 60  - 4.6
Kurrajong, flame NSW Aus 420 34 7.0 20 6.2 1.3
Kwila PNG 830 147 18 81 14 8.6
Kwila Qld Aus 770 130 12 63 7.7 7.2
Larch, European Great Britain 545 92 9.9 47  - 3.6
Larch, European New Zealand 560 68 12 49  - 4.3
Larch, western Canada 640 107 14 61  - 4.2
Larch, western USA 560 90 13 53  - 3.7
Lignum-vitae Central America 1280  -  - 79  - 20
Mahogany, African Ghana 530 83 9.2 46  - 4.1
Mahogany, American British Honduras 500 83 8.8  -  - 3.1
Mahogany, miva NSW Aus 670 92 11 54 7.2 5.3
Mahogany, Phil. l red Philippines 440 78 11 40  - 2.6
Mahogany, red NSW, Qld Aus 950 140 18 76 15 12
Makore Ghana 610 101 10 53  - 4.9
Malas PNG 800 152 19 84 21 9.5
Mallet, brown Western Australia 980 179 19 94  - 15
Mangrove, red PNG 980 157 23 85 20 11
Maple, Qld Aus PNG 560 85 11 50 11 3.2
Maple, rose NSW Aus 720 130 19 61 13 6.9
Maple, sugar Canada 740 115 14 56  - 7.3
Mararie NSW Aus 840 173 21 64 13 10
Marri Western Australia 850 125 17 66 23 7.1
Matai New Zealand 610 74 9.1 47 19 3.4
Meranti, light red Sabah 450 74 9.1 45  - 2.4
Merawan PNG 700 110 16 64 16 4.5
Messmate Vic, NSW 780 118 15 61 15 7.1
Messmate, Gympie Qld Aus 1000 137 17 73 13 12
Myall NSW Aus 1100 189 19 60 23 -
Oak, European Great Britain 690 97 10 52  - 5.5
Oak, New Guinea PNG 670 95 15 57 18 4.1
Oak, silky, mountain NSW Aus 610 96 13 49 13 4.7
Oak, silky, red NSW Aus 830 139 17 63 17 10
Oak, white, American USA 750 105 12 51  - 6.0
Obeche Nigeria 370 54 5.5 28  - 1.9
Peppermint, narrow-lf Vic 800 117 14 62 12 7.1
Pine, black PNG 430 65 9.5 40 3.3 2.0
Pine, bunya Qld Aus 460 71 13 45 6.9 2.3
Pine, Caribbean NSW Aus 480 67 5.4 35 2.2  -
Pine, celery-top Tasmania 650 98 12 56 6.5 4.5
Pine, Corsican Great Britain 480 84 9.2 44  - 2.9
Pine, cypress, black NSW Aus 710 74 9.0 45 3.6 6.6
Pine, cypress, white Qld, Vic 680 79 9.0 53 4.6 6.5
Pine, hoop Qld Aus, NSW 530 90 13 53 5.6 3.4
Pine, jack Canada 500 78 10 41  - 2.6
Pine, jack USA 480 68 9.3 39  - 2.5
Pine, King William Tasmania 400 69 6.8 37 4.9 2.0
Pine, klinki PNG 450 77 12 44 6.5 2.4
Pine, loblolly NSW, Qld Aus 550 77 7.7 40 6.6 3.1
Pine, lodgepole Canada,USA 460 76 11 43  - 2.2
Pine, longleaf USA 660 101 14 58  - 3.9
Pine, maritime Great Britain 480 77 8.9 40  - 2.7
Pine, Parana South America 530 95 11 54   - 3.5
Pine, radiata Kenya 510 80 9.0 43  - 3.6
Pine, radiata New Zealand 480 76 9.1 41  - 2.8
Pine, radiata SA, Vic 500 81 10 42 6.9 3.3
Pine, slash NSW, Qld Aus 530 85 9.7 41 5.6 3.4
Pine, slash USA 690 110 14 63  - 4.5
Pine, sugar USA 410 55 8.3 33  - 1.7
Pine, white New Zealand 450 66 7.9 35  - 3.0
Pine, white, western Canada 410 64 10 36  - 1.7
Pine, yellow, western Canada 510 73 9.5 42  - 2.6
Planchonella, red PNG 595 88 12 52 14 3.9
Poplar, hybrid NSW Aus 440 87 12 42 18 3.9
Poplar, pink NSW Aus 450 66 11 32 5.1 2.3
Purpleheart Guyana 865 147 17 79  - 11
Quandong, silver Qld Aus, NSW 500 72 11 53 8.2 2.8
Ramin Sarawak 660 134 14 72  - 5.8
Rauli Chile 580 92 9.2 50  - 3.6
Redwood USA 450 69 9.2 42  - 2.1
Rimu New Zealand 600 77 9.0 37 5.6 3.5
Rosewood, Indian South-east Asia 600 117 12 64  - 12
Rosewood, NG PNG 615 95 12 58 10 4.7
Rosewood, scentless NSW Aus 650 122 15 43 7.5 7.1
Saffronheart NSW Aus 950 198 21 96 16 13
Salwood, brown Qld Aus 700 128  - 60  - 5.9
Sapele West Africa 670 110 12 59  - 6.7
Sassafras NSW Aus 600 99 14 52 8.0 4.1
Satinash, New Guinea PNG 770 110 16 68 14 7.7
Satinash, rose NSW Aus 700 89 11 51 12 5.2
Satinay Qld Aus 840 129 16 70 7.1  8.3
Sepetir Sarawak 660 125 13 64 - 6.3
Sheoak, river NSW Aus 770 112 12 53 22 -
Sheoak, rose NSW Aus 920 145 20 72 17 14
Spruce, black Canada 490 78 10  - - 2.4
Spruce, red Canada 450 72 11 39 - 2.3
Spruce, Sitka Canada 430 75 11 40 - 2.3
Spruce, white Canada 420 63 9.9 37 - 1.9
Stringybark, blue-leaf NSW Aus 880 135 17 63 14  7.5
Stringybark, brown Vic, NSW 900 130 16 70 15  7.5
Stringybark, red Vic, NSW 900 123 16 63 16  8.7
Stringybark, silvertop NSW Aus 860 143 18 73 18  8.8
Sycamore, pink Qld Aus 710 130 16 64 14 6.8
Sycamore, silver NSW Aus 630 95 15 50 7.7 5.7
Tallowwood NSW, Qld Aus 990 134 18 73 17 8.6
Taun PNG 695 106 14 60 14 6.5
Tawa New Zealand 720 108 14 58 11 7.1
Teak Burma 640 106 10 60  - 4.5
Teak India 630 88 11 49  - 4.6
Terminalia, brown PNG 465 68 9.9 37 8.3 2.8
Totara New Zealand 480 53 7.4 38 2.3 2.4
Touriga, red Qld Aus 730 94 10 60 12 6.5
Tuart Western Australia 1030 125 16 72 16 11
Turpentine NSW, Qld Aus 930 142 16 76 9.5 12
Vitex, New Guinea PNG 705 113 14 64 7.3 5.6
Walnut, black Canada 670 103 13 54  - 5.9
Walnut, black USA 600 101 12 52  - 4.5
Walnut, New Guinea PNG 540 81 11 46 10 3.7
Wandoo Western Australia 1110 142 17 82 16 15
Wattle, black NSW Aus 740 124 18 41 39 9.2
Wattle, hickory NSW Aus 800 135 15 70 39 8.3
Wattle, silver Vic 680 87 12 52 19 5.1
Willow, cricket bat Great Britain 420 62 6.6 27  - 2.6
Woollybutt NSW Aus 1070 128 16 77 13 11
Yellowwood NSW Aus 680 135 19 71 16 8.2
Yertchuk Vic, NSW 930 129 16 75 16 10